By Ivar Lodemel, Heather Trickey
Within the Nineties, the built international has witnessed a pendulum swing clear of unconditional entitlement to social tips in the direction of larger emphasis on duties and stipulations tied to the receipt of monetary tips. With the creation of "targeting" via administrative reforms, stipulations of entitlement were narrowed. The made from study funded by way of the eu Union, this name compares "work-for-welfare" (workfare) guidelines objectively. It considers recognized schemes from the USA along extra neglected examples of workfare to be present in six eu international locations.
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Additional info for An Offer You Can't Refuse : Workfare in International Perspective
Workfare constitutes one form of ‘active measure’ (with distinctive characteristics as described above) (Heikkila, 1999; Torfing, 1999). Active labour market policies, including workfare, are characterised by the use of a mixture of incentives and disincentives (‘carrots’ and ‘sticks’) to achieve desired aims. Such measures are based on the assumption that individuals respond rationally, at least in aggregate, to cues that help them to maximise their income. The use of this approach within the new policies has been described as demonstrating a ‘fundamental shift in policy makers’ beliefs about human nature and behaviour’ and ‘the victory of rational choice thinking’ (Le Grand, 1997).
37 ‘An offer you can’t refuse’ OECD (2000) Employment outlook, Paris: OECD. -P. and Charbonnel, J-M. (1993) Précarité et risque d’exclusion en France, Paris: La documentation Francaise, coll. Documents du CERC, no 109. Payne, J. (1998) Overcoming welfare: Expecting more from the poor and from ourselves, New York, NY: Basic Books. Peck, J. (1998) ‘Workfare, a geopolitical etymology’, Environment and planning D: Society and Space, vol 16, pp 133-60. Room, G. (1990) New poverty in the European community, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
2. The psycho-social (or expectancy) model of dependency more clearly sees people as ‘victims of welfare’. Long periods of receiving welfare are therefore understood to deprive people of the confidence they require to move into work, even if they would like to do this. 3. The cultural model of dependency holds that people do not want to move on from claiming social assistance because they have developed values and behaviours and life-styles that are different from those of working people and which are congruent with passive benefit receipt.
An Offer You Can't Refuse : Workfare in International Perspective by Ivar Lodemel, Heather Trickey