By Ana Catarina Mamede, Maria Filomena Botelho
This e-book describes the human amniotic membrane from its foundation, characterization and clinical purposes, summarizing the entire most up-to-date advancements and findings relating to this tissue with contributions from the various best researchers within the box. The e-book addresses concerns for its upkeep, separation and identity of amniotic membrane-derived cells, in addition to the aptitude moral matters inquisitive about their use. the subject of this publication is very pertinent for clinicians and researchers inquisitive about the study and use of this tissue.
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Extra resources for Amniotic Membrane: Origin, Characterization and Medical Applications
The amniotic membrane contains various tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, -2, -3, -4) of MMPs . They regulate many crucial processes in inflammation and fibrotic processes including chemotactic migration of inflammatory cells, mitosis of fibroblasts, and synthesis and degradation of extracellular components . IL-1 receptor agonist and IL-10 are potent anti-inflammatory cytokines that are expressed by amniotic membrane . IL-10 counteracts the action of different pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) .
The outer layer, the chorion, consists of trophoblastic chorionic and mesenchymal tissues. The inner layer, the amniotic membrane, consists of a single layer of ectoderm-derived epithelium uniformly arranged on the basement membrane, which is one of the thickest membranes found in any human tissue, and a collagenrich mesenchymal layer . This mesenchymal layer can be subdivided into the compact layer forming the main fibrous skeleton of the amniotic membrane, the fibroblast layer and an intermediate layer, which is also called the spongy layer or zona spongiosa [16, 19].
Fetal fibronectin is a protein that acts as a “glue” during pregnancy attaching the amniotic sac, due to their multiple binding domains for cells, as well as other matrix components, which stabilize the whole system of cells and matrix . This is accomplished by specialized domains, of at least six peptide sites capable of mediating cell adhesion. Most cells can adhere to fibronectin through its centrally located cell-binding domain, the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence is crucial for this. There are six different cell surface receptors or integrin receptors which recognize this site, but the conformation of the fibronectin is also important for the specificity and affinity of this cell-fibronectin recognition .
Amniotic Membrane: Origin, Characterization and Medical Applications by Ana Catarina Mamede, Maria Filomena Botelho