In a single of the main unique books of past due antiquity, Philoponus argues for the Christian view that topic may be created by way of God out of not anything. It wishes no past topic for its production. even as, Philoponus transforms Aristotle's notion of best subject as an incorporeal 'something - i do know no longer what' that serves because the final topic for receiving extension and features. to the contrary, says Philoponus, the last word topic is extension. it truly is 3-dimensional extension with its certain dimensions and any features unspecified. in addition, such extension is the defining attribute of physique. therefore, up to now from being incorporeal, it really is physique, and in addition to being best subject, it's shape - the shape that constitutes physique. This makes use of, yet completely disrupts, Aristotle's conceptual equipment. eventually, in Aristotle's scheme of different types, this extension isn't to be labeled below the second one classification of volume, yet lower than the 1st classification of substance as a considerable volume. This quantity includes an English translation of Philoponus' remark, particular notes and advent, and a bibliography.
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Additional resources for Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 9-11 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)
99 One may, by observing everything that comes to be, convince oneself that each and every thing that comes to be comes to be from something [already] in being. A human being comes to be from menses and sperm;100 the fig tree, for its part, from a planted seed and water which moistens it; out of air, on the other hand, when it is thickened comes water and when it is thinned fire; and the case is the same with everything else, whether natural or man-made (tekhnêtos). And so, they claim, if there had not been something prior to the generation of the cosmos out of which the cosmos has come to be, it would have been absolutely impossible for it to have come to be.
If, then, an earlier whiteness has perished and another whiteness has subsequently appeared in the same [body], the later one is clearly numerically different from the earlier. Since, then, this is agreed and it is impossible for whiteness previously in a particular body to be numerically the same as whiteness which has subsequently appeared in the same [body], it is impossible for the whiteness which has previously perished to have come back into being still numerically the same, even though it is specifically the same.
So if there is some totality of nutritive power or of growthpromoting power146 there will also be something which is nourished or whose growth is promoted by [this] totality of nutritive power or of growth-promoting [power]. So if, on the one hand, no substrate is being nourished or made to grow [by these totalities], they cannot even exist. For they are, as was stated earlier,147 relatives; for that which nourishes and that which is nourished and that which promotes growth and that which is made to grow are relative to one another both in fact and in language (pros allêla gar kai estin kai legetai).
Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 9-11 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle) by Philoponus